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World Wise Words Group

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Grayson Brown
Grayson Brown

9. Artefacts

The artefacts of Vulkan are nine artefacts forged by the Primarch Vulkan, the only survivors of what was once a vault of thousands. Of these, seven were chosen by the first Forgefather, T'kell, whilst the other two were carried by Vulkan to Isstvan V.[4]

9. Artefacts

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The Nine were, according to Salamanders lore of the 41st Millennium, scattered throughout the galaxy, and the Tome of Fire gives clues as to their locations. The one tasked with finding these artefacts is a Captain from one of the companies. He renounces his name and takes his Primarch's name, Vulkan, and is given the title of Forgefather. So far, 5 of the artefacts have been located.[1]

Before heading to battle against Horus following the events at Isstvan III, Vulkan traveled to Prometheus to meet with Forgemaster T'kell. After discussing how weapons can be abused, and how Horus's fall represents that even the best of them could fall, Vulkan decides that he must destroy all of his artefacts, the weapons he was created to make. Vulkan takes T'kell into his vault and allows him to see many weapons, ranging from simple blades to mighty machines, created within. Vulkan tasks T'kell with their destruction, but T'kell pleads, saying that they represent Vulkan's legacy and could possibly be used for good just as they could be used for evil. Vulkan relents on the order, declaring that T'kell would be his Forgefather, bound to Nocturne and unable to travel with them to Isstvan V.[4]

This disturbs T'kell, but Vulkan allows him to choose 7 artefacts which he would preserve as the legacy: the Unbound Flame, Obsidian Chariot, Spear of Vulkan, Song of Entropy, Chalice of Fire, Eye of Vulkan, and the Engine of Woes. Their names were not always the original ones given by Vulkan, some were named after the legend that formed around them.[6a] If Vulkan was to fall, then the artefacts would be hidden. The rest, those not chosen, would have to be destroyed before Vulkan returns from the battle. T'kell was then left with the task to choose; Vulkan took his hammer Dawnbringer, the Gauntlet of the Forge, and Kesare's Mantle.[4] Vulkan's Sigil, a hammer icon that formed part of the primarch's Draken Scale, was recovered by Pyre Captain Artellus Numeon at Isstvan V.[5]

Within the Chalice of Fire, T'kell destroyed many of the artefacts in the ship's massive furnace, watching the inferno through armoglass as he despaired over the loss. He felt that it was a second loss of Vulkan after the loss on Isstvan. He explained to the Firedrake Captain Rahz Obek that two of the items to be spared were the ship itself and a weapon upon its hull in addition to five other artefacts. The forge of the ship was so hot that nothing made could stand against it. Obek believed that it was for the best that the weapons be destroyed instead of possibly falling to the traitors, and T'kell speculated that it was probably why Obek and his men were left behind to guard Prometheus and the oversee their destruction.[6c]

When the Salamanders arrived at the Wrought, they discovered that Regulus and the Sons of Horus had arrived before them.[6d] Embattled in the vault, they were rescued by elements of the Shattered Legions under Iron Father Kastigan Ulok.[6e] When the Iron Father discovers the nature of the relics the Salamanders carry, he demands they be surrendered to him so that he could use them to find and kill Horus.[6f] The Eye of Vulkan fired on the Iron Hands' Battle Barge, destroying it and killing the Forgefather who was still aboard. In the aftermath of the battle, the Chalice of Fire was severely damaged, operating under failing reserve power.[6h] The remaining Salamanders aboard entered stasis to watch over the artefacts as they drifted through the void.[6i]

The first of the artefacts was not recovered until M41, when a force of Salamanders under the direction of Forgefather Vulkan Dir'san discovered the drifting Chalice of Fire. The Eye of Vulkan was still attached, but the other artefacts had been stolen from the breached vault.[6j] Vulkan He'Stan, the current Forgefather, carries three of his Primarch's relics with him in his quest to find the remaining four; Kesare's Mantle, the Spear of Vulkan and the Gauntlet of the Forge.[1]

Of these artefacts unrecovered, only the names are known to the Salamanders of M41. Their size, form and location are locked within the riddles and encrypted passages of the Tome of Fire, there to be uncovered once Vulkan's prophecies come to light.[1]

Germany has restituted nine artefacts belonging to indigenous people in Alaska after determining they were plundered from graves. googletag.cmd.push(function() googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); ); The Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which oversees museums in the German capital, said Wednesday the burial objects were brought to Berlin in 1882-1884 on commission by the then Royal Museum of Ethnology.

Background and purpose: Multi-phase postmortem CT angiography (MPMCTA) is increasingly being recognized as a valuable adjunct medicolegal tool to explore the vascular system. Adequate interpretation, however, requires knowledge about the most common technique-related artefacts. The purpose of this study was to identify and index the possible artefacts related to MPMCTA.

Material and methods: An experienced radiologist blinded to all clinical and forensic data retrospectively reviewed 49 MPMCTAs. Each angiographic phase, i.e. arterial, venous and dynamic, was analysed separately to identify phase-specific artefacts based on location and aspect.

Conclusion: All MPMCTA artefacts observed and described here are reproducible and easily identifiable. Knowledge about these artefacts is important to avoid misinterpreting them as pathological findings.

The paper explains the most important parameters for the use of colour and power Doppler in rheumatology. Recommendations for machine settings are given. The commonly encountered artefacts and their importance for image interpretation are explained.

That probably sounds like a lot of artefacts, but the WALL series is a big story and I believe it can accommodate them; I hope readers agree! As for where the WALL artefacts may be found, not infrequently this is outside of time or within the realm of dreams, including in hidden towers (Nhenir), caverns (the Frostfire Sword), tombs (one of the Black Spears) and concealed rooms (the twelve-sided table.)

As the hybrid BCI system relies on eye movements to control the cursor, it is no surprise that the EEG signals in the system are more contaminated with ocular artefacts compared to EEG signals in a pure BCI system. Also as in other BCI systems, EEG signals are also contaminated with artefacts caused by muscle activities, power line interference, and electrode movements[9]. These artefacts can affect the performance of the system in several ways. In particular, they can:

In this paper, to minimize the effects of artefacts and improve the performance of our hybrid BCI, we propose a new artefact removal algorithm. The proposed artefact removal algorithm is integrated with our artefact detection algorithm proposed in[12]. Both algorithms use the stationary wavelet transform (SWT). The wavelet coefficients obtained from the artefact detection algorithm are thresholded by applying a new adaptive thresholding procedure that we propose to remove artefacts in EEG signals. Its advantages over state-of-the-art artefact removal algorithms are:

We compare the performance of different algorithms using real EEG signals and semi-simulated EEG signals (i.e., real EEG signals mixed with simulated artefacts). With semi-simulated EEG signals, we show that the proposed algorithm achieves lower signal distortion in both time and frequency domains. Next, using real EEG signals, we fully investigate and compare the performance of the hybrid BCI system in the following situations: 1) when artefacts are ignored (i.e., the original data are used); 2) when EEG segments with artefacts are rejected (i.e., the output of the system is blocked in the presence of artefacts and the system becomes unavailable); and 3) when automatic artefact removal algorithms such as the proposed algorithm and Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithms are employed. We show that for dwell time of 0.0s (i.e., the user can activate the system any time right after he/she gazes at a letter/word), the true positive rate (TPR) achieved using the proposed artefact removal algorithm is 44.7% with 2 false positives generated per minute. This TPR value is 33.6% and 20.1% higher than those achieved when artefacts are rejected and ignored respectively. We also show that our proposed method outperforms BSS by at least 16.2%.

The above system has one main drawback. When the users are looking at different locations of the virtual keyboard to make a selection, the amount of eye movement activity is significant. Therefore, EEG signals are more frequently contaminated with ocular artefacts compared to pure (non-hybrid) BCI systems. Hence, it is important to design an algorithm that can efficiently handle artefacts in this hybrid system.

A review of methods for handling EOG and EMG artefacts in BCIs shows that more than half of the 250 BCI papers studied did not report as to whether or not they had considered or handled EOG and/or EMG artefacts[9]. For those who did, three methods were generally employed:

In a real-time self-paced BCI system, using Ignore or Remove implies that both clean and contaminated EEG signals are classified and therefore the system is available for control at all times. On the other hand, employing Reject indicates that the BCI system becomes unavailable for control when artefacts are present.

Unless the signal processing algorithms employed to process EEG signals are robust to the presence of artefacts, ignoring the artefacts in EEG signals (Ignore) is usually not an efficient approach either. This is due to the fact that artefacts affect the different frequency bands in EEG signals and therefore impact the performance of a self-paced BCI system. For example, a study conducted by Bashashati et al.[10] shows that the performance of the proposed self-paced BCI system deteriorates, when the data with ocular artefacts are included in the analysis. Based on the results obtained from eight participants, the amount of decrease in the true positive rate (TPR) value varied from 2.3% to 15.1% (with an average of 6.8%), when the time-normalized false positive rate (TNFPR) was set to 9 FPs/min. In another study, Fatourechi et al.[11] combined the use of features extracted from three neurological phenomena: movement-related potentials (MRPs), and the power of mu and beta rhythms to design a self-paced BCI system that is robust in the presence of artefacts. Using a five-fold nested cross validation, the average TPR and TNFPR achieved were 56.2% and 0.5 FPs/min for non-contaminated data and 51.8% and 2 FPs/min for artefact-contaminated data. The deterioration in some individuals was much greater, e.g., a drop of 13.2% and an increase of 0.5 FPs/min in the TPR and TNFPR, respectively, were observed in one person. The results of the above studies show that current state-of-the-art pattern recognition algorithms employed in self-paced BCI systems cannot efficiently handle artefacts. As a result, other solutions need to be explored. 041b061a72


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